Morfin a kodein

Codeine vs Morphine Comparison - Drugs

  1. Codeine is an effective pain-reliever; however, it is addictive, may cause constipation, and its pain-relieving effects vary markedly between individuals. Codeine should only be used for pain relief... View more. Morphine is a very effective pain reliever but commonly causes constipation and carries a high risk of addiction and dependence
  2. Codeine and morphine are sedative pain relievers. Morphine is the strongest naturally occurring drug, used for post-surgical pain and extreme pain like cancer pain. Codeine does not relieve pain until it changes into morphine once inside the body. It is a milder pain reliever as well as a cough suppressant
  3. Zákazníci prodejny Lidl mohou mít doma mletý mák značky Belbake, který obsahuje morfin a kodein. Obchodní řetězec se omluvil a vyzývá zákazníky, aby výrobek vrátili. Kvůli bezpečnosti spotřebitelů musely být staženy také obilné sušenky Tastino s chia semínky

Codeine is usually taken orally through pill form, but can be injected into the muscle. It is not given through an IV as it can cause convulsions. Codeine is also used to treat pain, but the effects are much less intense than morphine. Addiction to codeine can occur, if the drug is misused. Thebaine and Papaverin Related to codeine in other ways are codoxime, thebacon, codeine-N-oxide (genocodeine), related to the nitrogen morphine derivatives as is codeine methobromide, and heterocodeine, which is a drug six times stronger than morphine and 72 times stronger than codeine due to a small re-arrangement of the molecule, viz. moving the methyl group from. Morfin, také morfium, je alkaloid benzylisochinolinového respektive morfinanového typu, obsažený v opiu, tzv. opiát (opioid přirozeného původu, vyskytující se v opiu vyráběného z rostlin máku).Tvoří přibližně 10 % hmotnosti surového opia. Používá se primárně v lékařství jako silné analgetikum (lék tišící bolest) a též jako surovina na výrobu dalších. The Morphine Milligram Equivalents (MME) Calculator calculates total daily morphine milligram equivalents. This is an unprecedented time. It is the dedication of healthcare workers that will lead us through this crisis. Thank you for everything you do. COVID-19 Resource Center

The below tables are an approximate guide only. Opiate bioavailability and response are highly variable. Wide inter-patient variation exists. Consider the need to adjust dose for conditions that increase opiate risk (eg elderly, co-morbidities, renal or hepatic impairment) Kodein je považován za prekurzor drogy [prodrogu]. Zhruba 5-10% kodeinu se přemění na morfin, zbytek zůstane buď volný, konjugovaný ve formě kodein-6-glukuronidu [70%], nebo se přemění na norkodein [10%] a hydromorfon [1%]. Je méně účinný nežli morfin a shodně s tím je i méně náchylný na vytvoření závislosti tramadol/codeine DRUG DRUG DOSE APPROXIMATE CODEINE EQUIVALENCE APPROXIMATE ORAL MORPHINE EQUIVALENCE BuTrans 5 5micrograms/hour 60mg/24hours 10mg/24hours BuTrans 10 10micrograms/hour 120mg/24hours 20mg/24hours BuTrans 20 20micrograms/hour 240mg/24hours 40mg/24hours Strong opiate conversion doses:‐ DRUG NAME DRUG DOSE EQUIVALENT ORAL MORPHINE. Codeine is changed into a strong opioid drug (morphine) in your body. In some people, this change happens faster and more completely than usual, which increases the risk of side effects such as Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, light Juul pods near me headedness, blurred vision, upset stomach, nausea, constipation, or dry mouth may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your. Morphine has no peer till date in controlling the excruciating pain, especially of postsurgical patients, and in intensive burn and severe fracture cases. Opium is the rubbery viscous exudate that oozes out from the sacrificed or pricked unripe seed capsules of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum Linn

Codeine vs Morphine - Similarities and Difference

Morphine is a strong painkiller. It's used to treat severe pain, for example after an operation or a serious injury, or pain from cancer or a heart attack.. It's also used for other types of long-standing pain when weaker painkillers no longer work Kodein postane aktiven po tem, ko vstopi v metabolizem. In vivo in se razgradi na aktivne komponente:morfin in codeine-6-glucuronide. Približno 5-10% kodeina se preoblikuje v morfin, preostanek pa v konjugirano obliko kodein-6-glukuronida (~70%), ali v norkodein (~10%) oziroma hidromorfon (~1%). Kodein, ki je šibkejši od morfina in ima temu. For patients prescribed only morphine, codeine concentrations of 1% of the morphine concentration may be reasonably expected, and urinary morphine concentrations from patients on long-term morphine therapy can be greater than 100,000 ng/mL (1, 2, 10). Thus, codeine present due to pharmaceutical contamination of morphine could easily cause a. Codeine is an opioid analgesic (pain-reliever) that is related to morphine. Codeine weakly binds to a specific opioid receptor, known as the mu-opioid receptor, but with much less affinity than morphine, which means its analgesic (pain-relieving effects) are much less. Codeine belongs to the group of drugs known as opioids or opioid analgesics

In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7522 μg. When morphine/codeine ratios in blood were less than unity (n = 76), the median morphine and codeine concentrations were 10 ng/g and 180 ng/g, respectively. Conclusions: Only 2.3% of opiate-positive DUID suspects were verified as heroin users on the basis of positive findings of 6-AM in blood. A much higher proportion (62%) were verified heroin. V mletém máku z Lidlu se našel morfin a kodein. Vraťte ho, vybízí řetězec zákazníky Ekonomika 21. 8. 2019 16:49 Obchodní řetězec Lidl stahuje z oběhu šarži 200gramového balení mletého máku Belbake s datem minimální trvanlivosti 9. dubna 2020. Ve výrobku bylo podle prodejce zjištěno zvýšené množství morfinu a kodeinu

V mletém máku z Lidlu se našel morfin a kodein! Stahují i

Catalytic Asymmetric Total Syntheses of (‒)-Morphine and (‒)-Codeine. Yong­Qiang Tu and Fu­Min Zhang present the total syntheses of two analgesic drugs from commercially available but-­3­yn-­1-­ol For the PM group the treatment sequences codeine-morphine-placebo and placebo-morphine-codeine included three subjects. All study sessions started at 0830 to 0930 hours. Volunteers weighing more than 60 kg were given 100 mg codeine and 30 mg morphine, whereas volunteers weighing less than 60 kg were given 75 mg codeine and 20 mg morphine (Table 1) As nouns the difference between codeine and morphine is that codeine is (pharmaceutical drug) an addictive alkaloid narcotic derived from opium and used as a hypnotic, analgesic and cough suppressant; often mixed with aspirin etc while morphine is a crystalline alkaloid (7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-morphinan-3,6-diol), extracted from opium, the salts of which are soluble in water and are used as analgesics, anaesthetics and sedatives; it is one of a group of morphine alkaloids Re: Codeine vs Morphine It could be for the reason that oral morphine has a very low bioavailability compared with oral codeine (20-25% for morphine and 80-90% for codeine). This is because codeine is quickly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and because that almost the 90% of oral morphine is converted into neutral metabolites in the liver

Regiospecific and Stereoselective Syntheses of (±) Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine via a Highly Stereocontrolled Intramolecular 4 + 2 Cycloaddition Leading to a Phenanthrofuran System. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009 , 131 (32) , 11402-11406 Opioid: mg per day: Morphine Equivalent Dose: Codeine : Fentanyl transdermal (in mcg/hr) Hydrocodone : Hydromorphone: Methadone : close ×. Methadone has been associated with disproportionate numbers of overdose deaths relative to the frequency with which it is prescribed for chronic pain, due in part to its long and variable half-life A new synthetic strategy for the synthesis of the opiate and amaryllidaceae alkaloids emerges employing a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation to set the stereochemistry. The pivotal tricyclic intermediate is available in six steps from 2-bromovanillin and the monoester of methyl 6-hydroxycyclohexene-1-carboxylate, the latter available from glutaraldehyde and the Emmons−Wadsworth. Gilbert Stork, Ayako Yamashita, Julian Adams, Gary R. Schulte, Richard Chesworth, Yoji Miyazaki, Jay J. Farmer, Regiospecific and Stereoselective Syntheses of (±) Morphine, Codeine, and Thebaine via a Highly Stereocontrolled Intramolecular 4 + 2 Cycloaddition Leading to a Phenanthrofuran System, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 10.

Opiates & Opioids: Morphine, Codeine, & Other Medications

Codeine - Wikipedi

Codeine to Morphine - Homebake Method from alt.drugs.chemistry Ok, here is a ranting and raving post on how to do it. It is obviously a dope fiend who have witten it, but he has probably personal experience with the method - therefore I include it here. I have divided the text into five paragraphs for clarity's sake In patients receiving long-acting opioid formulations (SR, transdermal), a rescue dose for breakthrough pain is recommended. 12 Generally, an immediate-release form of the same opioid is used (eg, morphine IR with morphine SR). The size of the breakthrough dose should be 5-15% of the patient's 24-hour baseline dose

Morfin - Wikipedi

I have gotten a few morphine caps with are 30 milligrams each and has been using a 30 mg morph and combining it with about 150mgs of codeine to total roughly 45-50mgs of morph. I am just checking with you guys to make sure this is generally safe. He assumed it would be but wanted to double check. Thanks Drug Half-life (hr) Metabolites Concentrations above the cutoff will screen positive for morphine 1.5 - 6.5 normorphine, hydromorphone (<2.5%) Opiates codeine 1 - 4 morphine, hydrocodone (<11%), norcodeine Opiates oxycodone 4 - 12 oxymorphone, noroxycodone Oxycodone oxymorphone 3 - 6 6-hydroxy-oxymorphone Oxycodon A : A lot of people confuse the nausea that is commonly experienced when taking Codeine and other narcotics with an allergy. They are not the same thing. An allergy is characterized by itching, hives, and--in severe cases--problems breathing. If you had nausea with codeine, you will probably also have it (maybe even more so) with morphine

Morphine Milligram Equivalents (MME) Calculator - MDCal

that is, (2 x 30 mg codeine) x 4 doses or 240 mg codeine/day . 60 mg oral morphine/day ÷ conversion factor = subcut morphine/day 60 mg ÷ 3 = 20 mg subcut/morphine/day . Transdermal preparation conversions • For transdermal preparations (patches) the equianalgesic oral morphine dose is listed for the. MHRA/CHM advice (July 2013) Codeine for analgesia: restricted use in children due to reports of morphine toxicity Codeine should only be used to relieve acute moderate pain in children older than 12 years and only if it cannot be relieved by other painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen alone Morphine and codeine are found in the resin collected from the opium poppy. Other opiates are synthesized or manufactured (eg, heroin). Opium appears as dark brown chunks or as a powder and is usually smoked or eaten. Heroin can be a white or brownish powder that is usually dissolved in water and injected

Oxycodone and codeine are both narcotic pain relievers. Both are also used as cough suppressants similar to morphine and hydrocodone. Both are potentially addictive and cause withdrawal symptoms. Learn side effects, dosage and pregnancy safety information. Brand names for oxycodone available in the US are OxyContin, Roxicodone, Oxecta, Oxaydo, Xtampza ER, and Roxybond Opiate derivative, the 6-methyl ether of morphine, and a structural isomer of codeine; it is called hetero- because it is the reverse isomer of codeine. First synthesised in 1932 and first patented in 1935. Wikipedi Codeine is an opiate (sometimes called a narcotic). Other opiates include oxycodone, heroin and morphine. Street names for codeine include cough syrup, schoolboy, coties and t-three's. Codeine Effects and Abuse. Codeine use often starts out innocently with a prescription for a codeine-based cough syrup Codeine is a pro drug of morphine. This means that some of the codeine dose is converted to morphine - another opioid drug - inside your body. For example, if you take a 30 mg dose of codeine you would produce approximately 4.5 mg of morphine from the dose in your liver

Opioid Equivalence Char

No, codeine is not stronger than morphine, but both drugs can cause a serious addiction syndrome. Call 800-584-3274 now if you or someone you know is suffering from an opioid addiction and needs help.. Codeine vs. Morphine. Codeine, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, can be found as a Schedule II, III, and V drug.It can be taken alone or in combination with other drugs (like. Morphine having a purity of 92% calculated as the anhydrous free base and determined by HPLC has been prepared, although purities in the 80% region are more typical. Negligible codeine is present with the morphine, indicating that the chloroform extraction step is efficient in removing this The conversion of codeine into norcodeine by CYP3A4 and into codeine-6-glucuronide by glucuronidation usually represents 80 percent of codeine clearance, and conversion of codeine into morphine by. Morphine was derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. For 5-ml samples of urine, the lower detection limits for accurate quantitation were 50 ng ml-1 and 100 ng ml-1 for morphine and codeine, respectively. Both codeine and morphine were already detectable in urine 1 h after the intake of the analgesic preparation Perdolan We compared the effects of i.v. tramadol (1.25 mg/kg), codeine (1 mg/kg), morphine (0.125 mg/kg), and saline on gastric emptying in 10 healthy human volunteers using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Subjects received one treatment at each of four sessions, 2 wk apart. Gastric emptying was studied using the paracetamol absorption test

Codeine is a 'prodrug' that needs to be metabolized to morphine in the body. Metabolism, and analgesic effect, can vary significantly by individual. On a milligram to milligram basis, hydrocodone is stronger than codeine. In fact, it is more than 6 times more potent Codeine should not be used in children below the age of 12 years because of the risk of opioid toxicity due to the variable and unpredictable metabolism of codeine to morphine (see sections 4.3 and 4.4). Diarrhoea. Adults and children over 12 years: 15-60mg three to four times daily

Info drogy estranky cz - Opiáty a opioidy - Kodein

MORPHINE 1. Morphine was isolatedfrom raw opium in 1805 by aGerman pharmacologist,Friedrich Wilhelm AdamSerturner (1783-1841). Morphine is a potentsuppressor of pain and is avery useful drug in painfulconditions, especially insevere chest pain arisingdue to heart attacks (Example: a patient is receiving 200mg of oral morphine daily (chronic dosing), however, because of side effects a switch is made to oral hydromorphone 25 - 35mg daily - (this represents a 33 to 50 percent reduction in dose compared to the calculated 50mg conversion dose produced via the equianalgesic calculator) Codeine metabolism pathway in an individual with cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) extensive metabolism or see PharmGKB Codeine and Morphine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics Supplement to: Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for Cytochrome P450 2D6 ( CYP2D6 ) Genotype and Codeine Therapy: 2014 Update (April 2014 Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, coughing, and diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen Another name for codeine is methylmorphine, or basically a morphine molecule with a Methyl group on the #3 carbon. In the body, enzymes in the liver typically remove this methyl group to convert..

Promethazine increases the amount of codeine converted to morphine in vivo by a factor of two, so the same 90mg of codeine is now equal to roughly 18mg of morphine, and, in addition, is made more sedative, less itchy (the itch is the best part of an opioid high besides the nod), and a slightly more effective painkiller (some anti-histaminics. Morphine dose conversions. Oral morphine 6mg ≈ oral codeine 60mg or oral dihydrocodeine 60mg. Oral morphine 5mg ≈ oral tramadol 50mg. Oral morphine 10mg ≈ subcutaneous morphine 5mg. Oral morphine 10mg ≈ subcutaneous diamorphine 3mg. Oral morphine 10mg ≈oral oxycodone 5mg. Oral morphine 60mg to 90mg ≈ fentanyl patch 25 micrograms/hou

Codeine Cough Syrup Legal Lea

Morphine | C17H19NO3 | CID 5288826 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety. Codeine. Like morphine and heroin, codeine comes directly from the opium poppy plant. The drug is an ingredient in many cough syrups and is also prescribed to treat mild to moderate pain and diarrhea. Codeine, which is seven to 14 times less potent than morphine, comes in a variety of dosages. The opioid is often combined with Tylenol to. Differences: Both are different chemical entities. Though at first look very similar, codeine is the methylated form of morphine. Codeine gets metabolised into morphine by a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Similarities: (not asked but useful to know) Both.. Isoquinoline alkaloids| protopine| hydrocotarnin

Morphine. Codeine. Thebaine: Modified ..

morphine codeine < > Most recent. Most popular Most recent. Filter by post type. All posts. Text. Photo. Quote. Link. Heroine History - Heroine was derived from opium - opium drug made from dried latex in poppy plants - By Niamh Smith How heroine was first found and made - First made by Charles Romley Alder Wright - Thank You An enzyme system in liver of a number of mammalian species which catalyzes the cleavage of codeine to yield morphine and formaldehyde is described. This enzyme system is located in the microsomes and requires reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide and oxygen Morphine changed the world of medicine and pain control. Chemists began creating other extracts, including codeine, which is only about one-tenth to one-third as strong (strength varies by.

Morphine orale 60 mg = oxycodone 30 mg = hydromorphone 8 mg = 1 mg de buprénorphine = fentanyl transdermique patch 25 microgrammes par heure. Morphine orale 60 mg = Morphine sous-cutanée 30 mg. Codeine is converted to morphine in the liver by the CYP2D6 enzyme. There are many genetic variations of CYP2D6, which affect the extent of this conversion in individuals The urinary excretion patterns of morphine and codeine in a number of individuals following consumption of morphine-based narcotic drugs have been studied. From the data collected the relative amounts of codeine and morphine in urine specimens were compared and certain trends, consistencies and irregularities were revealed. To a certain extent, the ratio of the proportion of codeine to. Codeine mixed with DXM Cigarette smoke allergy symptoms How is morphine synthesized from dihydrocodeinone? Is a sore throat a symptom of an pollen allergy? Is it possible to be allergic to birds? First signs of wasp stings allergy? Found some old morphine suppositories Best way to check am I allergic to morphine or other drugs Chemical Analysis, Life Sciences, and Diagnostics | Agilen

Morphine: strong painkiller to treat severe pain - NH

Drowsiness — codeine has mild sedative properties and people should be warned to avoid activities where drowsiness may be detrimental. If codeine is ineffective, switch to morphine solution 5 mg to 10 mg every 4 hours and 'as required'. For people who are opioid naive, start at a dose of 2.5 to 5 mg every 4 hours Solution for Codeine (C18H21NO3) is a derivative of morphine that is used as an analgesic, narcotic, or antitussive (cough reliever). It was once commonly use Calculate Morphine Equivalent Dose, if codeine dosage is 12 mg / day, tapentadol is 18 mg / day and morphine is 34 mg /day. MED = (c * 0.15 + t * 0.367 + e) = 12 * 0.15 + 18 * 0.367 + 34 MED = 42.406 mg / day Therefore MED is 42.406 mg / da Morphine is isolated from opium in large quantities (over 1000 tons per year), although most commercial opium is converted into codeine by methylation. Morphine acts as an anesthetic without decreasing consciousness, and it is one of the most powerful analgesics known

Kodein - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedij

KLIPAL CODEINE 300 mg/25 mg, comprimé est indiqué chez les patients âgés de plus de 15 ans pour le traitement des douleurs aigues d'intensité modérée qui ne peuvent pas être soulagées par d'autres antalgiques comme le paracétamol ou l'ibuprofène (seul) Morphine. Codeine. Thebaine: Modified Benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids. January 2015; DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-45410-3_23. In book: Chemistry of Plant Natural Products (pp.811-841). As the MRO, you must proceed as follows when you receive a laboratory confirmed positive opiate result: (a) If the laboratory confirms the presence of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in the specimen, you must verify the test result positive. (b) In the absence of 6-AM, if the laboratory confirms the presence of either morphine or codeine at 15,000 ng/mL or above, you must verify the test result. 25 mg/kg), codeine (1 mg/kg), tramadol (1.25 mg/kg), or placebo (10 mL 0.9% w/v sodium chloride) in 10 healthy volunteers. Pupil diameter was measured every 30 min using a pupil densitometer. Comparisons of the change in pupil diameter for each drug were made using analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant change in pupil diameter was observed after placebo. After IV morphine.

Codeine (also known as 3-Methylmorphine) is a naturally-occurring opioid substance of the morphinan class found in extracts of the poppy, particularly Papaver bracteatum. Members of this group produce effects such as sedation, cough suppression, and euphoria when administered.. Codeine is the second most predominant alkaloid in opium (up to three percent). [citation needed] Although codeine. Morphine ER v Codeine. Morphine. Hi All, I'm a reddit virgin so please be kind! Apologies if this isn't the right place to be asking these kind of questions. Unfortunately for a number of years I have struggled with an opiate addiction. I currently take approx 390mg of Codeine Phosphate each time in order to stay well. Sometimes twice a day The methylation of morphine is one of the key operations of the opium alkaloid industry, as up to 90% of the manufactured morphine is converted into codeine, the methylether of the phenolic hydroxyl of the morphine. The latter is a rather precious raw material for a commercial-scale manufacture, and many attempts have been made in the Course of almost one century first to realize and then to. Opioids are a class of drugs that include the illegal drug heroin, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, and pain relievers available legally by prescription, such as oxycodone (OxyContin ®), hydrocodone (Vicodin ®), codeine, morphine, and many others.Learn about the health effects of prescription opioids and read the DrugFacts on Fentanyl, Heroin, and Prescription Opioids After absorption, morphine is mostly converted in the liver into two compounds (known as M6G and M3G). After absorption, morphine is rapidly and widely distributed and crosses the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain. Researchers have also found that a small amount of morphine is transformed to these compounds in the brain, itself


Opiates include morphine and drugs structurally similar to morphine (eg, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone). Heroin (diacetylmorphine) is a synthetic opiate made from morphine and is rarely detectable in body fluids. It has a half-life of a few minutes. Illicit heroin often contains small amounts of acetylcodeine morphine and codeine. FAQ. Medical Information Search. Select a category... Codeine Morphine Morphine Derivatives Morphine Dependence Analgesics, Opioid Antitussive Agents Narcotics Hydrocodone Substance Abuse Detection Naloxone Drug Tolerance Nalorphine Hydromorphone Receptors, Opioid, mu Papaver Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Opium Narcotic Antagonists Oxycodone Oxymorphone Heroin. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit morphine and codeine - Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen

Codeine taken with alcohol can cause mental clouding, reduced coordination and slow breathing. 1. Withdrawal. Giving up codeine after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Please seek advice from a medical professional Codeine can be extracted directly from the plant, most codeine is synthesized from the much more abundant morphine found in opium poppy. Codeine is converted by an enzyme in the liver to morphine. zav t; sd le Thebaine, an intermediate of morphine biosynthesis in the poppy plant, Papaver somniferum, was transformed to oripavine, codeine, and morphine by rat liver, kidney, and brain microsomes in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. The formation of morphine, codeine, and oripavine was identified by a specific RIA, HPLC, and GCMS. Thebaine also gave rise to four other compounds, which for the.

Analysis of Codeine Positivity in Urine of Pain Management

Codeine when broke down in the body becomes morphine so Here's a quick (roughly) codeine:morphine ratio-300mg codeine: 45mg morphine. 200mg codeine: 30mg morphine. 100mg codeine: 15mg morphine. 50mg codeine: 7.5mg morphine. I thought I might as well do the basic mathematics for you, stay safe Morphine definition, a white, bitter, crystalline alkaloid, C17H19NO3⋅H2O, the most important narcotic and addictive principle of opium, obtained by extraction and crystallization and used chiefly in medicine as a pain reliever and sedative. See more

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